The most challenging laryngotracheal stenoses are those that exceed 5 cm in length and involve more than one area of the larynx and trachea contiguously.
A successful technique for the repair of these injuries with a three-stage laryngotracheal trough was created followed by anterior tracheal wall replacement with a skin-Marlex-muscle pedicle flap.
Friedman WH, Biller HF, Som ML. Repair of Extended Laryngotracheal Stenosis. Arch Otolaryngol. 1975;101(3):152–156. doi:10.1001/archotol.1975.00780320010002
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