• Congenital anomalies of the facial nerve are of great concern to the otologic surgeon. Nine cases from the literature are reviewed and three of our own are reported in which the facial nerve coursed inferior to the oval window. All cases were explored for congenital conductive hearing impairments and were accompanied by severe stapes abnormalities.
(Arch Otolaryngol 102:744-746, 1976)
Mayer TG, Crabtree JA. The Facial Nerve Coursing Inferior to the Oval Window. Arch Otolaryngol. 1976;102(12):744–746. doi:10.1001/archotol.1976.00780170062010
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