• Large defects in the upper two thirds of the face, skull, and skull base pose challenging reconstructive problems. There are a number of applicable reconstructive techniques, all with various advantages and disadvantages, available to otolaryngologists—head and neck surgeons. One method, originally described in the late 1800s, was evaluated by us. Applications of the technique included reconstruction of large defects of the forehead, dura, and anterior skull base, closure of orbital defects, and soft-tissue augmentation of the face. Advantages of this reconstructive technique are the flap's proximity to the defects and its simplicity of execution.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1986;112:60-65)
Frank W. Shagets, William R. Panje, John W. Shore. Use of Temporalis Muscle Flaps in Complicated Defects of the Head and Face. Arch Otolaryngol. 1986;112(1):60–65. doi:10.1001/archotol.1986.03780010062011