• Traumatic, degenerative, benign, and malignant lesions of the clivus and cervical spine were treated by three basic surgical procedures. Midline skull base lesions in the nasopharynx, clivus, and C-1 were approached via the transmandibular and transcervical route. Lesions of C-2 and C-3 were operated on through a high transcervical route (above the hypoglossal nerve). A low transcervical route was used for lesions at the level of C-4 to C-7.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988;114:73-78)
Krespi YP, Har-El G. Surgery of the Clivus and Anterior Cervical Spine. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114(1):73–78. doi:10.1001/archotol.1988.01860130077019
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