• There are many known complications of tracheoesophageal puncture for voice restoration. A patient developed hypertrophic scarring with subsequent vocal failure, an as yet unreported complication.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988;114:1324-1325)
Modica LA. Hypertrophic Scarring of Tracheoesophageal Fistula Causing Vocal Failure. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114(11):1324–1325. doi:10.1001/archotol.1988.01860230118039
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