• In 500 rhinoplasties, infiltration of 1% lidocaine (Xylocaine) hydrochloride with epinephrine chloride (Adrenalin) 1:100000 was used in combination with inhalation of halothane (Fluothane) or enflurane (Ethrane). Three arrhythmias requiring treatment occurred when halothane was used. No arrhythmias occurred with the use of enflurane. No complications from anesthesia were observed. No patient had laryngospasm. Bleeding was comparable with that which occurs when infiltration anesthesia is used with intravenous sedation. Enflurane is therefore the inhalation agent of choice for use with 1% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100000 for rhinoplasty. Clinical methods and guidelines for safety are set forth with special consideration for the in-office surgical suite.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115:802-803)
Selkin SG. Rhinoplasty and General Anesthesia: Halothane vs Enflurane as Agent of Choice. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115(7):802–803. doi:10.1001/archotol.1989.01860310040018
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