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On June 27, 1989, at the Fifth International Symposium of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Head and Neck in Toronto, Canada, Peter Costantino, MD, and Craig Friedman, MD, Chicago, Ill, presented the results of their research using a new form of hydroxyapatite in laboratory animals. A hydroxyapatite putty, whose key component is tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2), was studied in three experimental models using cats. Initially, solid disks of the putty were implanted intramuscularly to study the soft-tissue response. The material was well-tolerated, demonstrating no fibrous encapsulation and only minimal resorption. The hydroxyapatite putty was then used to obliterate and contour frontal sinuses, and also to fill cranial bone defects that extended to the level of the dura. There were no infections, extrusions, structural failures, or toxic reactions noted in either group. Serial histologic examinations between 6 and 18 months revealed progressive replacement of the implanted material by
RAYMOND J. KONIOR. The Evaluation of a New Hydroxyapatite Putty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;116(2):145. doi:10.1001/archotol.1990.01870020021001