• Guidelines are presented for the management of acute external laryngeal trauma based on personal experience and basic principles evolved over the past two decades. Accurate assessment of the extent of injury has permitted stratification of treatment ranging from observation to open reduction and internal fixation of the laryngeal skeleton. Results are often predictable and frequently lead to restoration of the voice and airway.
(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:35-39)
Schaefer SD. The Treatment of Acute External Laryngeal Injuries: 'State of the Art'. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117(1):35–39. doi:10.1001/archotol.1991.01870130041013
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