The 1980s brought about an evolution in the evaluation and treatment of craniomaxillofacial trauma. Not only have the utilization of rigid internal fixation techniques become the standard of care in the treatment of facial fractures, but an improved understanding of pertinent surgical anatomy and pathophysiology has allowed more precise primary reconstruction. In no area has this been more true than in the evaluation and treatment of bony orbital trauma.
During this same period, an enhanced appreciation of the sequelae of mismanaged orbital trauma has occurred. Both aesthetic and functional orbital dystopias are not uncommon, and secondary correction is extremely difficult. Accordingly, the surgeon's goals at the time of evaluation of isolated or combined orbital trauma are proper diagnosis and primary reconstruction, when appropriate, of the injured orbit. This, in turn, can only be performed with an absolute and thorough understanding of bony orbital anatomy.
BONY ORBITAL ANATOMY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
FRODEL JL, MD. Recent Advances in the Management of Orbital Trauma: Surgical Anatomy and Evaluation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117(7):714. doi:10.1001/archotol.1991.01870190026006
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