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About two centuries ago, our specialty of otolaryngology—head and neck surgery began to emerge from general medicine and surgery as a group of physicians who cared for patients with a wide variety of disorders in the region of the head and neck. During the second half of the 19th century, otolaryngology evolved further through the phenomenon of subspecialization. Some individuals became laryngologists and others became otologists, known more commonly in that day as aurists. During the 20th century, subspecialization has moved ahead rapidly, reflecting the dramatic advances in the fields of bronchoesophagology, endoscopy, otology/neurotology, pediatric otolaryngology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, head and neck oncologic surgery, and otolaryngic allergy. Postresidency fellowship programs ranging from 12 to 24 months in length have proliferated during the last two decades, and there are now in the United States more than 100 fellowship programs (some having more than one fellow) in these various subspecialties
BAILEY BJ. The New Certificate of Added Qualifications in Pediatric Otolaryngology. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119(2):145–146. doi:10.1001/archotol.1993.01880140027004
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