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April 1993

Temporalis Muscle for Facial Reanimation: A 13-Year Experience With 224 Procedures

Author Affiliations

From the Facial Paralysis Center, Shadyside Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119(4):378-382. doi:10.1001/archotol.1993.01880160022004

• A procedure for temporalis muscle transposition was used to reanimate the paralyzed face in 219 patients. In most cases, facial paralysis had followed an operation to remove an acoustic tumor. Analysis of the results showed this procedure to be highly successful and the method of choice, alone in cases of long-standing facial paralysis or to augment the effects of facial nerve grafting or hypoglossal—facial nerve anastomosis, in reanimating the mouth. It was successful in restoring a smile to 80% of the 219 patients and provided overall improvement in mouth function in 96%. Complications occurred in 21% of patients, with the most common being infection (12% of patients). Since one of us began to use the procedure to reanimate the eye and mouth, results of temporalis muscle transposition have been improved by the following: (1) using the procedure to reanimate the mouth only; (2) performing revision surgery, most often tightening the corner of the mouth (25% of patients), as indicated; (3) transposing only the midsection of the muscle; (4) implanting a prefabricated Silastic prosthesis to fill the muscle defect; (5) when indicated, lengthening the muscle with polytef (Gore-Tex+); and (6) placing the muscle in a tunnel lateral to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system to avoid injuring the underlying facial nerve should some spontaneous recovery of facial nerve function be possible.

(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:378-382)

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