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1.
Legg, J. W.:  Enlargement of the Temporal and Masseter Muscles on Both Sides ,  Tr. Path. Soc. London 31:361-366, 1880.
2.
Duroux, M.:  Hypertrophie musculaire bilatérale des masséters ,  Lyon méd. 104:1355, 1905.
3.
Boldt, H.: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der einfachen Masseterhypertrophie mit einigen Fällen, Berlin Thesis No. 31, 1930.
4.
Coffey, R. J.:  Unilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Surgery 11:815-818 ( (May) ) 1942.
5.
Hersh, J. H.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Arch. Otolaryng. 43:593-596 ( (June) ) 1946.Crossref
6.
Gurney, C. E.:  Chronic Bilateral Benign Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  Am. J. Surg. 90:137 ( (Jan.) ) 1947.Crossref
7.
Adams, W. M.:  Bilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle: An Operation for Correction ,  Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 2:78-81 ( (July) ) 1949.
8.
Maxwell, J. H., and Waggoner, R. W.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng. 60:538-548 ( (June) ) 1951.
9.
Tempest, M. N.:  Simple Unilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 4:136-138 ( (July) ) 1951.
10.
Soderberg, B. N., and Switzer, W. E.:  Bilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  U.S. Armed Forces M.J. 5:393-396 ( (March) ) 1954.
11.
Drummond, J. A., and McIntosh, C. A.:  Symposium on Maxillofacial Surgery: Unilateral Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscles ,  Am. J. Surg. 87:711-714 ( (May) ) 1954.Crossref
12.
Kern, A. B.:  Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy ,  A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 69:558-562 ( (May) ) 1954.
13.
Barton, R. T.:  Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  J.A.M.A. 164:1646-1647 ( (Aug. 10) ) 1957.
14.
Ohrt, H. H.:  Et Tilfaelde af Bilateral benign hypertrofi af musculus masseter ,  Ugesk. laeger 115:251-253 ( (Feb.) ) 1953.
15.
Masters, F.; Georgiade, N., and Pickrell, K.:  The Surgical Treatment of Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  Plast. & Reconstruct. Surg. 15:215-221 ( (March) ) 1955.
16.
Rasmussen, H.:  Masseterhypertrophie ,  Ugesk. laeger 118:1329-1331, 1956.
17.
Korting, G. W.:  Contralaterale Kaumuskelhypertrophie ,  Ztschr. Haut-u. Geschlechtsk.-Kr. 22:87-90 ( (Feb. 1) ) 1957.
18.
Eubanks, R. J.:  Surgical Correction of Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy Associated with Unilateral Prognathism ,  J. Oral Surg. 15:66-69, 1957.
19.
Caldwell, J. B., and Hughes, K. W.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles and Mandible ,  J. Oral Surg. 15:329-331, 1957.
20.
Oppenheim, H., and Wing, M.:  Benign Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscle ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 70:207-210 ( (Aug.) ) 1959.
21.
Ward, G. E., and Hedrick, J. W.:  Diagnosis and Treatment of Tumors of the Head and Neck , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1950, p. 337.
22.
Brannin, D. E., and Christenson, R. O.:  Bilateral Giant Cell Tumors of the Mandible in Siblings ,  J. Oral Surg. 12:247-251 ( (July) ) 1954.
23.
Loef, M.:  Clamping and Grinding Habits: Their Relation to Periodontal Disease ,  J. Am. Dent. A. 31:184-194, 1944.
24.
Thoma, K. H.:  Diseases of Muscles of the Face , in  Oral Pathology , Ed. 3, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950, Chap. 31.
25.
Reich, W.:  Charakteranalyse, Sebstverlag des Verfassers , Berlin, 1933.
26.
Guggenheim, P., and Cohen, L. B.:  External Hyperostosis of the Mandible Angle Associated with Masseteric Hypertrophy: A New Entity ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 70:674-680 ( (Dec.) ) 1959.
27.
Guggenheim, P., and Cohen, L. B.:  The Histopathology of Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 71:906-912 ( (June) ) 1960.
28.
Adams, R. D.; Denny-Brown, D., and Pearson, C. M.:  Diseases of the Muscle: A Study in Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. (Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers), 1953.
29.
Ivy and Eby: Medical Department of U.S.A. in the World War, Vol. XI, Sec. II, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1924, p. 457.
30.
Cameron, J. R., and Stetzer, J. J., Jr.:  Myositis Ossificans of the Right Masseter Muscle ,  J. Oral Surg. 3:170-173 ( (April) ) 1945.
31.
Nizel, A. E., and Prigge, E. K.:  Trismus Due to Myositis Ossificans Traumatica ,  J. Oral Surg. 4:93-101 ( (April) ) 1946.
32.
McMorris, R. O., and Elkins, E. C.:  A Study of Production and Evaluation of Muscle Hypertrophy ,  Arch. Phys. Med. 35:420-426 ( (July) ) 1954.
33.
DeLorme, T. L.; Ferris, B. G., and Gallagher, J. R.:  Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise on Muscle Contraction Time ,  Arch. Phys. Med. 33:86-92 ( (Feb.) ) 1952.
34.
Braatoy, T.:  The Neuromuscular Hypertension and the Understanding of Nervous Conditions ,  J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 95:550-567 ( (May) ) 1942.
35.
Costen, J.:  Masseter Muscle Tremor: An Important Factor in Mandibular Joint Dysfunction ,  Laryngoscope 65:1129-1135 ( (Dec.) ) 1955.
36.
Costen, J.: Personal communication.
37.
Kubie, L.:  The Central Representation of the Symbolic Process in Psychosomatic Disorders ,  Psychosom. Med. 15:1-7 ( (Jan.) -Feb.) 1953.
38.
Pruzansky, S.:  The Application of Electromyography to Dental Research ,  J. Am. Dent. A. 44:49-68 ( (Jan.) ) 1952.
39.
Neumann, H. H.:  Electric Action Currents During Mastication ,  J. Dent. Res. 29:463-468, 1950.Crossref
40.
Sicher, H.:  Oral Anatomy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949.
41.
Corbin, K. B.:  Observations on the Peripheral Distribution of Fibers Arising in the Mesencephalic Nucleus of the Fifth Cranial Nerve ,  J. Comp. Neurol. 73:153-177 ( (Aug.) ) 1940.Crossref
42.
Corbin, K. B., and Harrison, F.:  Function of the Mesencephalic Root of the Fifth Cranial Nerve ,  J. Neurophysiol. 3:423-435 ( (Sept.) ) 1940.
43.
Braatoy, T.:  Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1954.
44.
Ferenczi, S.:  Denken über Muskelinnervation ,  Internat. Ztschr. f. Psychoanal. 5:1919.
45.
Kempf, E. J.: The Automatic Functions and Personality, Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph No. 28, 1921.
46.
Jacobson, E.:  Progressive Relaxation, University of Chicago Monograph in Medicine , University of Chicago Press, 1929.
47.
Jelliffe, S. E.:  The Mental Picture in Schizophrenia and in Epidemic Encephalitis ,  Am. J. Psychiat. 6:413-465 ( (Jan.) ) 1927.
48.
Jelliffe, S. E.:  The Parkinsonian Body Posture ,  Psychoanalyt. Rev. 27:467, 1940.
49.
Ellman, P.; Savage, O. A.; Wittkower, E., and Rodger, T. F.:  Fibrositis ,  Am. J. Rheumatic Dis. 3:1, 1942.Crossref
50.
Plutchik, R.:  The Role of Muscular Tension in Maladjustment ,  J. Gen. Psychol. 50:45-62, 1954.Crossref
Original Articles
January 1961

The Nature of Masseteric Hypertrophy

Arch Otolaryngol. 1961;73(1):15-28. doi:10.1001/archotol.1961.00740020019002
Abstract

Introduction  Striking enlargement of the masseter muscles is common, scarcely a busy day passing in which a careful observer may not see at least one case of idiopathic masseter hypertrophy. Yet only 43 instances of this condition have been reported in some 20 articles * (excluding our own), which give the impression of dealing with a clinical rarity. Although various etiologic theories have been offered, the true nature of the condition remains obscure. Studies thus far employed —without yielding generally accepted evidence for any theory—include physical and neurological examination, x-ray study of the mandible, electromyography of the masseter and related muscles, surgical exploration with either biopsy or substantial muscle resection, and pathologic examination.As a surgical curiosity the condition might seem scarcely worthy of an extensive investigation. We believe, however, that it is of extraordinary psychosomatic interest. While casual references are made to psychic disturbances in eight of the reported cases,

References
1.
Legg, J. W.:  Enlargement of the Temporal and Masseter Muscles on Both Sides ,  Tr. Path. Soc. London 31:361-366, 1880.
2.
Duroux, M.:  Hypertrophie musculaire bilatérale des masséters ,  Lyon méd. 104:1355, 1905.
3.
Boldt, H.: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der einfachen Masseterhypertrophie mit einigen Fällen, Berlin Thesis No. 31, 1930.
4.
Coffey, R. J.:  Unilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Surgery 11:815-818 ( (May) ) 1942.
5.
Hersh, J. H.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Arch. Otolaryng. 43:593-596 ( (June) ) 1946.Crossref
6.
Gurney, C. E.:  Chronic Bilateral Benign Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  Am. J. Surg. 90:137 ( (Jan.) ) 1947.Crossref
7.
Adams, W. M.:  Bilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle: An Operation for Correction ,  Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 2:78-81 ( (July) ) 1949.
8.
Maxwell, J. H., and Waggoner, R. W.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng. 60:538-548 ( (June) ) 1951.
9.
Tempest, M. N.:  Simple Unilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscle ,  Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 4:136-138 ( (July) ) 1951.
10.
Soderberg, B. N., and Switzer, W. E.:  Bilateral Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles ,  U.S. Armed Forces M.J. 5:393-396 ( (March) ) 1954.
11.
Drummond, J. A., and McIntosh, C. A.:  Symposium on Maxillofacial Surgery: Unilateral Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscles ,  Am. J. Surg. 87:711-714 ( (May) ) 1954.Crossref
12.
Kern, A. B.:  Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy ,  A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 69:558-562 ( (May) ) 1954.
13.
Barton, R. T.:  Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  J.A.M.A. 164:1646-1647 ( (Aug. 10) ) 1957.
14.
Ohrt, H. H.:  Et Tilfaelde af Bilateral benign hypertrofi af musculus masseter ,  Ugesk. laeger 115:251-253 ( (Feb.) ) 1953.
15.
Masters, F.; Georgiade, N., and Pickrell, K.:  The Surgical Treatment of Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  Plast. & Reconstruct. Surg. 15:215-221 ( (March) ) 1955.
16.
Rasmussen, H.:  Masseterhypertrophie ,  Ugesk. laeger 118:1329-1331, 1956.
17.
Korting, G. W.:  Contralaterale Kaumuskelhypertrophie ,  Ztschr. Haut-u. Geschlechtsk.-Kr. 22:87-90 ( (Feb. 1) ) 1957.
18.
Eubanks, R. J.:  Surgical Correction of Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy Associated with Unilateral Prognathism ,  J. Oral Surg. 15:66-69, 1957.
19.
Caldwell, J. B., and Hughes, K. W.:  Hypertrophy of the Masseter Muscles and Mandible ,  J. Oral Surg. 15:329-331, 1957.
20.
Oppenheim, H., and Wing, M.:  Benign Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscle ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 70:207-210 ( (Aug.) ) 1959.
21.
Ward, G. E., and Hedrick, J. W.:  Diagnosis and Treatment of Tumors of the Head and Neck , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1950, p. 337.
22.
Brannin, D. E., and Christenson, R. O.:  Bilateral Giant Cell Tumors of the Mandible in Siblings ,  J. Oral Surg. 12:247-251 ( (July) ) 1954.
23.
Loef, M.:  Clamping and Grinding Habits: Their Relation to Periodontal Disease ,  J. Am. Dent. A. 31:184-194, 1944.
24.
Thoma, K. H.:  Diseases of Muscles of the Face , in  Oral Pathology , Ed. 3, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950, Chap. 31.
25.
Reich, W.:  Charakteranalyse, Sebstverlag des Verfassers , Berlin, 1933.
26.
Guggenheim, P., and Cohen, L. B.:  External Hyperostosis of the Mandible Angle Associated with Masseteric Hypertrophy: A New Entity ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 70:674-680 ( (Dec.) ) 1959.
27.
Guggenheim, P., and Cohen, L. B.:  The Histopathology of Masseteric Hypertrophy ,  A.M.A. Arch. Otolaryng. 71:906-912 ( (June) ) 1960.
28.
Adams, R. D.; Denny-Brown, D., and Pearson, C. M.:  Diseases of the Muscle: A Study in Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. (Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers), 1953.
29.
Ivy and Eby: Medical Department of U.S.A. in the World War, Vol. XI, Sec. II, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1924, p. 457.
30.
Cameron, J. R., and Stetzer, J. J., Jr.:  Myositis Ossificans of the Right Masseter Muscle ,  J. Oral Surg. 3:170-173 ( (April) ) 1945.
31.
Nizel, A. E., and Prigge, E. K.:  Trismus Due to Myositis Ossificans Traumatica ,  J. Oral Surg. 4:93-101 ( (April) ) 1946.
32.
McMorris, R. O., and Elkins, E. C.:  A Study of Production and Evaluation of Muscle Hypertrophy ,  Arch. Phys. Med. 35:420-426 ( (July) ) 1954.
33.
DeLorme, T. L.; Ferris, B. G., and Gallagher, J. R.:  Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise on Muscle Contraction Time ,  Arch. Phys. Med. 33:86-92 ( (Feb.) ) 1952.
34.
Braatoy, T.:  The Neuromuscular Hypertension and the Understanding of Nervous Conditions ,  J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 95:550-567 ( (May) ) 1942.
35.
Costen, J.:  Masseter Muscle Tremor: An Important Factor in Mandibular Joint Dysfunction ,  Laryngoscope 65:1129-1135 ( (Dec.) ) 1955.
36.
Costen, J.: Personal communication.
37.
Kubie, L.:  The Central Representation of the Symbolic Process in Psychosomatic Disorders ,  Psychosom. Med. 15:1-7 ( (Jan.) -Feb.) 1953.
38.
Pruzansky, S.:  The Application of Electromyography to Dental Research ,  J. Am. Dent. A. 44:49-68 ( (Jan.) ) 1952.
39.
Neumann, H. H.:  Electric Action Currents During Mastication ,  J. Dent. Res. 29:463-468, 1950.Crossref
40.
Sicher, H.:  Oral Anatomy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949.
41.
Corbin, K. B.:  Observations on the Peripheral Distribution of Fibers Arising in the Mesencephalic Nucleus of the Fifth Cranial Nerve ,  J. Comp. Neurol. 73:153-177 ( (Aug.) ) 1940.Crossref
42.
Corbin, K. B., and Harrison, F.:  Function of the Mesencephalic Root of the Fifth Cranial Nerve ,  J. Neurophysiol. 3:423-435 ( (Sept.) ) 1940.
43.
Braatoy, T.:  Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1954.
44.
Ferenczi, S.:  Denken über Muskelinnervation ,  Internat. Ztschr. f. Psychoanal. 5:1919.
45.
Kempf, E. J.: The Automatic Functions and Personality, Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph No. 28, 1921.
46.
Jacobson, E.:  Progressive Relaxation, University of Chicago Monograph in Medicine , University of Chicago Press, 1929.
47.
Jelliffe, S. E.:  The Mental Picture in Schizophrenia and in Epidemic Encephalitis ,  Am. J. Psychiat. 6:413-465 ( (Jan.) ) 1927.
48.
Jelliffe, S. E.:  The Parkinsonian Body Posture ,  Psychoanalyt. Rev. 27:467, 1940.
49.
Ellman, P.; Savage, O. A.; Wittkower, E., and Rodger, T. F.:  Fibrositis ,  Am. J. Rheumatic Dis. 3:1, 1942.Crossref
50.
Plutchik, R.:  The Role of Muscular Tension in Maladjustment ,  J. Gen. Psychol. 50:45-62, 1954.Crossref
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