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Carr MM, Nagy ML, Pizzuto MP, Poje CP, Brodsky LS. Correlation of Findings at Direct Laryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children: A Prospective Study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127(4):369–374. doi:10.1001/archotol.127.4.369
To correlate direct laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic findings with the presence of positive test results for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children.
Prospective collection of structured data.
An academic pediatric otolaryngology department.
Seventy-seven consecutive patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy between June and October 1999.
During direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy, descriptions of 7 laryngeal and 6 cricotracheal findings were recorded on a 3-point scale (ie, absent, mild, or severe). Medical records were later reviewed to obtain results of the following tests, if they were part of the record: gastric scintiscan, 24-hour pH probe monitoring, upper gastrointestinal tract series, and esophageal biopsy.
Main Outcome Measures
Correlation of mucosal abnormalities with the presence or absence of a positive test result for GERD.
Fifty (65%) of 77 patients had GERD diagnosed with at least 1 positive test result, 21 (27%) had no clinical symptoms and no positive GERD test results, and 5 (7%) had clinical symptoms but no positive test results. There were significant differences for total laryngeal and cricotracheal scores (P<.001) between the groups with positive and negative results. Significant differences were as follows: in the larynx—large lingual tonsil (P<.001), postglottic edema (P<.001), arytenoid edema (P<.001), ventricle obliteration (P = .03), and true vocal fold edema (P = .001), and in the cricotracheal region—general edema and erythema (P = .003) and blunting of the carina (P<.001). Severe arytenoid edema, postglottic edema, or enlargement of lingual tonsil were pathognomonic of GERD.
Many direct laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic findings correlate well with the diagnosis of GERD as determined by using other tests.
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