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Cannon TY, Guttridge D, Dahlman J, et al. The Effect of Altered Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling on Cancer Cachexia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(12):1263–1269. doi:10.1001/archotol.133.12.1263
To determine whether mice unable to mount an intact inflammatory response because of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway defect will develop less severe cancer cachexia.
Prospective animal study.
Academic research center.
Six- to eight-week-old, female C3H/HeJ mice (17-18 g) and age-, weight-, and sex-matched wild-type C3H/HeN mice, differing in that the HeJ mice have nonfunctional TLR4 due to a TLR4 double mutation (TLR4d/d).
The mice were inoculated with equal numbers of SCCF-VII cells and housed in individual cages.
Main Outcome Measures
Food intake, body weight, pretumor and posttumor body composition, circulating cytokines, and levels of a marker of muscle atrophy were analyzed.
The wild-type HeN mice weighed less on average than the TLR4d/d mice (2.6 g vs 4.9 g) (P = .01). They consumed more food, had smaller tumors, and had less lean body mass and fat mass than the TLR4d/d mice. Interleukin 1β level was significantly elevated in the tumor-bearing HeN mice (mean gain of 259 pg/mL) but not in the TLR4d/d mice (P = .03). Both mouse strains had evidence of muscle atrophy.
In spite of increased food intake and smaller tumors, the wild-type HeN mice had more severe cachexia than the TLR4d/d mice. The impaired ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β may protect these animals from developing severe cancer cachexia. This animal model represents a novel system in which the host contributions to cachexia may be further studied.
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