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This Month in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Apr 2012

This Month in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(4):301-302. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.524

Bisgaier et alArticle found that while affiliation with academic medical centers in Cook County, Illinois, was associated with fewer discriminatory denials of children covered by Medicaid–Children's Health Insurance Program, these children had significantly longer wait times compared with privately insured children.

This national study by Slater et alArticle found that state and school district policies mandating the amount of physical education per week and encouraging daily recess were approximately twice as likely to have these activities. However, it appeared that schools may substitute recess for physical education time rather than increasing it overall.

Less than one-quarter of parents of overweight children recalled having been told by their doctor that their child was overweight, Perrin et alArticle found. This was especially true for younger children, the group that is perhaps easiest with which to intervene.

Among 9816 children with special health care needs, Romaire et alArticle found that having a medical home was associated with higher total, outpatient, prescription medication, and dental expenditures. However, among those children with a functional or sensory limitation, medical homes were associated with a $968 lower annual inpatient cost.

Balaji et alArticle found that less than one-quarter of sexually active US adolescents have ever been tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Current testing practices are falling short of making HIV testing a normal part of medical care for sexually active adolescents.

Both maternal gestational diabetes and low socioeconomic status were associated with a 2-fold increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 6 years of age. The risk for ADHD was increased nearly 14-fold in children exposed to both, according to Nomura et alArticle.

There has been a significant and substantial change in the incidence of pertussis among adolescents after the initiation of the Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccination program. However, Skoff et alArticle also found there did not seem to be any impact on the incidence of pertussis among infants younger than 1 year.

Since the reintroduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, there has not been a detectable increase in the incidence of hospital discharges for US infants with intussusceptions, Zickafoose et alArticle found. There has been a gradual decrease in intussusceptions over time.

In an analysis of a large prospective observational cohort study of 42 412 children by Nigrovic et alArticle, 3302 (8%) had isolated severe injury mechanisms. Only 0.3% of children younger than 2 years and 0.6% of those older than 2 years had clinically important traumatic brain injuries.

GoldsteinArticle wrote that bipolar disorder is one of the most severe psychiatric illnesses, particularly when onset occurs during childhood or adolescence. The past 15 years have seen substantial and rapid progress in the diagnosis, course, and treatment of this disorder in pediatric patients.

This systematic review and meta-analysis by Meneses et alArticle found that nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation decreased the need for invasive ventilation. There was no difference in the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.