There are two types of congenital bronchiectasis: the atelectatic bronchiectasis first described by Heller and Francke, and the fetal bronchiectasis, the first detailed description of which was made by Meyer and Grawitz. The characteristic feature of the former is that, besides the development of an atelectatic condition in the affected part of the lung, there also occurs dilatation of the bronchi by a hypoplasia of the alveolar structure (Hondo). The dilatations are thus changed into various sized, multilocular cavities, with or without open connection with the larger bronchi; infiltration and pigmentation are then absent. On the other hand, there occurs an often marked growth in the cartilage of the bronchial walls. The mucosa is lined with stratified columnar epithelium, usually nonciliated. This type of bronchiectasis is said to appear in later adult life (over 45 years) and results in atrophy of the affected lung.
Fetal bronchiectasis is by far the
KOECKERT HL. FETAL BRONCHIECTASIS. Am J Dis Child. 1919;17(2):95–111. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1919.04110260012002
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