Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is a rare condition in children. I have been able to collect and review thirty-one cases from the literature, besides the two cases which I have to report.
There is a great diversity of opinion on this subject, mainly because the real causative factors have not been worked out in many cases. Some authors believe that syphilis is practically always the prime factor in children as in adults, but a careful study of the available cases does not confirm this view. Bronson1 has grouped these cases according to the etiologic factors into: (1) those aneurysms due to atheromatous degeneration; (2) those resulting from trauma (rare); (3) those due to erosion of the aorta from without; (4) a few following congenital malformations, and (5) last, but probably the most important factor in childhood, aortic aneurysms following in the wake of acute infectious diseases. Osler
CALVIN JK. ANEURYSMS OF THE THORACIC AORTA IN CHILDREN: WITH REPORT OF TWO CASES. Am J Dis Child. 1921;21(4):327–338. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1921.01910340014002
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