Cases of congenital malformation of the esophagus are extremely rare, and many standard works on embryology, anatomy, pathology or pediatrics dismiss the subject with but a few words. In the large necropsy service of Bellevue Hospital, only one case has been recorded in the last sixteen years.1
The etiology of the condition still remains in doubt, although several theories to explain it have been brought forward. MacKenzie2 holds it possible that injury to the ovum or spermatozoa before fertilization may cause the defect. Trauma to the mother or fetus, abnormalities of the placenta, hydramnios and diseases on one or the other parental side, especially syphilis, have all been brought forth as possibilities, but, as Kreuter3 states, they are not worth serious discussion. Associated malformations are uncommon and most of the children recorded as having esophageal abnormalities were otherwise healthy at birth. Ballantyne4 calls attention to the
REYNOLDS RP, MORRISON WW. CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS OF THE ESOPHAGUS: WITH REPORT OF TWO CASES. Am J Dis Child. 1921;21(4):339–346. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1921.01910340026003
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