TYPES OF NEUROMUSCULAR DYSFUNCTION
Braasch1 has divided cases of neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder into those with definite clinical evidence of involvement of the central nervous system, and those in which the lesion is limited to the terminal nerves of the bladder. The first type is termed cord bladder because of associated disease of the spinal cord; the second is the atonic bladder, so-called because of flabby musculature and diminished expulsive power. In describing cases of chronic retention of urine, Beer2 subdivides the neuromuscular group into those cases associated with: (1) Disease of the brain, (2) disease of the spinal cord, and (3) spasticity of the bladder sphincter without neurologic signs. Cases of the first and second types would correspond to those of so-called cord bladder; the third group is similar to the group of atonic bladders. In later publications Beer considers that in some of these cases
HELMHOLZ HF. NEUROMUSCULAR DYSFUNCTION OF THE BLADDER AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC PYELITIS IN CHILDHOOD. Am J Dis Child. 1926;32(5):682–691. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1926.04130110044005
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