The cardiograms which represent the basis of this study are records of the same school children whose clinical observations and teleoroentgenograms were reported in previous articles. Many of the cardiograms are in series; in a group of sixty-three children, from four to seven tracings were made in as many successive years, so that we had an excellent opportunity to study serial characteristics. As our group consisted of 222 normal school children from 3 to 12 years old, and was many times larger than any which had been used in previous studies, we endeavored to establish a series of normal figures for each age period, with standard deviations, so that the limits of the normal might be appreciated. In addition, we tried to show possible sex and family characteristics in the cardiograms, and to stress the differences between the tracings of an adult's heart and those of a child's heart.
LINCOLN EM, NICOLSON GHB. THE HEARTS OF NORMAL CHILDREN: III. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC RECORDS. Am J Dis Child. 1928;35(6):1001–1020. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1928.01920240048007
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