Horseshoe kidney is an unusual anomaly. Morris1 reported one incidence in 1,590 autopsies; Küster,2 one in 1,100; Botez,3 one in 715, and Eisendrath.4 one in 800. In 68,000 postmortem examinations, Carlier and Gérard5 reported one incidence in 850; Judd, Braasch and Scholl6 recorded 17 horseshoe kidneys in 2,424 operations on the kidney. These authors stated that the usual position for this anomaly is median and caudad to the normal. The masses of kidney tissue tend to converge downward and inward, responding to the traction exerted by the commissure on the anterior poles. In the secondary development, fusion of the kidneys prevents complete rotation on the vertical axis, leaving the pelves facing anteriorly. In most cases, the pelves are extrarenal and deficient in support of the enveloping tissue.
In the majority of cases of horseshoe kidney, the fusion occurs at the lower poles. In 262
PETERMAN MG, LA PENA AD. HORSESHOE KIDNEY. Am J Dis Child. 1929;38(4):799–803. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1929.01930100119013
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