There are many points of similarity between scarlet fever and rheumatic fever.
The streptococcus plays an important rôle in both diseases. G. F. Dick and G. H. Dick1 showed that the streptococcus is the specific organism in scarlet fever. Since 1900, when Poynton and Paine2 described the diplostreptococcus as the specific organism in rheumatic fever, many workers (Rosenow,3 Faber,4 Swift and Kinsella5 and Small6) have described one or another strain of the streptococcus group as an etiologic agent in that disease.
Escherich and Schick7 and Swift8 suggested that many of the symptoms occurring in scarlet fever—adenopathy, recurrent angina, arthritis and simple endocarditis—are allergic in nature. Experimental studies by Swift and his co-workers,9 Mackie and McLachlan10 and Zinsser and Grinnel11 seem to point to the fact that the allergic phenomena in scarlet fever are an expression of hypersensitivity to Streptococcus