Aneurysms of the thoracic aorta in children, though rare, occur frequently enough to warrant attention, because a group of them are a part of the much more common rheumatic fever syndrome. A great diversity of opinion has existed regarding the etiology of the thoracic aneurysm in the young. Some authors have believed that syphilis is practically always the prime factor in children as in adults, but a careful study of the available cases does not confirm this view.
The etiologic factors in the production of aortic aneurysms in childhood have been classified by Bronson and Sutherland1 in the following manner: (1) atheromatous degeneration; (2) trauma (rare); (3) erosion of the aorta from without; (4) congenital malformation (in a few cases), and (5), probably the most important, acute infectious diseases.
Up to the present forty-four cases of aneurysm of the thoracic aorta in persons under 18 have been reported.
CALVIN JK, NICHAMIN SJ. THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSMS IN CHILDREN: THEIR RELATION TO RHEUMATIC FEVER. Am J Dis Child. 1934;48(4):780–790. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1934.01960170070005
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