Enuresis nocturna is usually considered to be present when a child after reaching the age of 3 years continues bed wetting. The age limit is an arbitrary one. There are many children as young as 1½ or 2 years of age who without any special training acquire control of the bladder and sleep through the night without bed wetting. Other children may require to be awakened once during the night to empty the bladder. Some children require a period of training in order to gain sphincteric control. Other children in spite of the most rigorous measures and apparent cooperation on the part of the parents and the child continue to be bed wetters. The problem is usually considered a functional one, a behavior disorder coming within the province of a child guidance clinic, and requiring instructions for the mother and the placing of the child on his own responsibility. The
KARLIN IW. INCIDENCE OF SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT ENURESIS. Am J Dis Child. 1935;49(1):125–134. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1935.01970010134014
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