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April 1938

TONIC NECK REFLEXES IN CHILDREN: CONSIDERED FROM A PROGNOSTIC STANDPOINT

Am J Dis Child. 1938;55(4):696-742. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1938.01980100032002
Abstract

Cerebral palsies are commonly described in qualitative terms, such as pyramidal and extrapyramidal, or spastic and athetoid. While these terms may be of value in elucidating the genesis of the motor disturbance and in indicating the applicability of certain forms of treatment to it, they leave much to be desired from the quantitative point of view. Psychologic studies in some measure help to establish an intellectual basis for educational and social plans, but they are in no sense a reliable guide to future motor function. Furthermore, they are of limited validity in their own field when applied to infants under 2 years of age, especially when applied to infants whose responses are impaired by motor difficulties.

During the past few decades investigations on laboratory animals and clinical material have suggested that certain disturbances of motor function in man are of significance as an index of extensive damage, deterioration or malformation

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