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It has been increasingly apparent to me, after five years' study of weakness in the feet of small children, that two fundamental conditions are present: (1) a rolling in of the ankle, or pronation, and (2) a turning outward of the front part of the foot on the heel, or abduction, which is associated with and possibly a result of the pronation. It would follow, then, that the correction of abnormal position should be the primary purpose of a corrective shoe. It should bring about and maintain the corrected position of supination and adduction, allowing nature in the process of growth, assisted by proper foot balance, to tighten up sagging muscles and ligaments, the result being a normal pair of feet.
Exercise with proper supervision would greatly help, but with the child in care of the average mother it is either never or improperly done.
There are several excellent corrective
BIVINGS L. MAKING A CORRECTIVE SHOE. Am J Dis Child. 1938;56(4):775–777. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1938.01980160055006
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