It is generally admitted that smallpox vaccination should be done for the first time in early infancy; the choice of age varies from the third month to the end of the first year. "In 1936, of the more than 2,000,000 live births, nearly 900,000, or two fifths, took place in hospitals. Nearly three quarters of the births in cities were in hospitals, as compared with one seventh in rural areas."1 Healthy full term babies may be vaccinated the day of their birth with practically no risk at all.2 Among the poor there is no time so opportune for vaccination as at birth in the maternity hospital. Two or three subsequent vaccinations by the age of 30 years would meet Topley's recommendations3 for the substantial elimination of the disease, except in epidemic times, during which he advocated "the immediate vaccination or revaccination of all contacts, and of the
DONNALLY HH, NICHOLSON MM, ANDERSON WS, GROSVENOR MH. SMALLPOX VACCINATION OF NEWBORN INFANTS WITH CULTURE VIRUS AND WITH CALF LYMPH VIRUS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRADERMAL AND CUTANEOUS VACCINATION WITH THE TWO VIRUSES IN OVER A THOUSAND INFANTS. Am J Dis Child. 1940;59(2):322–331. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1940.01990130105007
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