Adams and Churchill1 recently reviewed the literature and reported 5 cases in which the Kartagener triad of situs inversus viscerum totalis, bronchiectasis and sinusitis was exhibited. Glaum,2 in 1938, and Ingraham,3 Rosenthal4 and Becker,5 in 1939, reported additional cases in which these abnormalities were associated, thus bringing the total number reported to 27. In many of the cases the congenital origin of the bronchiectasis was not supported by definite clinical evidence, and in many the acquired nature of the bronchial disease could be definitely established.5a Several investigators, including Kartagener6 and Vernli-Haessig,7 supported the contention of Sauerbruch that in about 80 per cent of the cases of bronchiectasis occurring in childhood the origin is congenital. What role the transposition of the heart plays in the development of bronchiectasis is not clearly known, nevertheless, the exceedingly high incidence of bronchiectasis when such an anomaly
ADLAND SA, EINSTEIN RAJ. KARTAGENER'S TRIAD: SITUS INVERSUS VISCERUM, BRONCHIECTASIS AND PARANASAL SINUSITIS. Am J Dis Child. 1941;61(5):1034–1036. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1941.02000110122011
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