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June 1942

THE PERIOD OF RESISTANCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM CHILD

Author Affiliations

Research Associate in Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University BALTIMORE

Am J Dis Child. 1942;63(6):1019-1079. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1942.02010060003001
Abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

  • Historical Review

  • Presentation of Cases

  • The Clinical Picture

  • Comment on Some of the Symptoms

  • The Prognosis

  • Statistical Treatment of Material

  • Faulty Methods of Education

  • The Psychologic Background of the Period of Resistance Appendix: The Disease of Civilization

  • Therapy

  • Prevention

I. HISTORICAL REVIEW  Many children are known during the second, third and fourth years of life to go through a stage of development in which they are more or less resistive to adult direction and display an attitude of stubbornness, contrariness and spitefulness. This behavior, succeeding a time of relative submissiveness, has been referred to in the literature as the typical manifestation of an "age of resistance" or "period of negativism." German authors have used the term Trotzperiode des Kindesalters, that is the remonstrance or spite period of childhood. The reaction has been spoken of variously as a normal phenomenon, a character-shaping developmental crisis, a resentful response to all attempts at control, and a hostile turning

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