ALTHOUGH records of influenza epidemics go back to the tenth century, little is known of the pathologic changes caused by the virus of influenza in man. MacCallum1 stated in the latest edition (seventh, 1940) of his textbook, that "no one died of influenza alone without secondary infection with bacteria," and that following extensive studies he and his associates were "entirely uninformed as to the nature of any changes in the internal organs which may result from influenza as such." The most characteristic clinicopathologic feature of the more recent proved epidemics of influenza in man is an acute pharyngitis. Francis2 has stated (1941) that the virus of influenza exerts its initial and primary effect on the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract. Bloomfield and Harrop3 recognized and emphasized this fact in 1919. They reported, "Early in the course of the epidemic we noticed an unusual bright red appearance
ADAMS JM, PENNOYER MM, WHITING AM. PATHOLOGIC STUDY OF THE ACUTELY INFLAMED HUMAN PHARYNX IN INFLUENZA A INFECTION. Am J Dis Child. 1946;71(2):162–170. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1946.02020250052005
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