AMONG the anemias of infancy, and childhood, those due to hypoplasia or aplasia of the bone marrow are relatively uncommon. Early reports of "aplastic" anemias are clouded in obscure and often ambiguous terminology, and frequently the designation "aplastic" is based simply on the existence of anemia, leukopenia and thrombopenia (i. e. pancytopenia) in the peripheral blood, without marrow studies to confirm the use of the term. Thus, true aplastic anemias, transient and chronic pancytopenic states associated with infection, leukemia or sarcomatous metastasis to the bone marrow and (probably) certain cases of splenic pancytopenia have often been reported under the designation "aplastic anemia."
However, a definite although small number of infants and children show anemia which is the result of true hypoplasia or aplasia of the bone marrow. Perhaps the first report was by Vaquez and Aubertin,1 who in 1904 described a patient who had had pallor and weakness from
ESTREN S, DAMESHEK W. FAMILIAL HYPOPLASTIC ANEMIA OF CHILDHOOD: Report of Eight Cases in Two Families with Beneficial Effect of Splenectomy in One Case. Am J Dis Child. 1947;73(6):671–687. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1947.02020410022003
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