On Feb. 26, 1913, an eight-month baby, with a harelip and cleft palate, was born in the Presbyterian Hospital. Because of the defects in the mouth and his general weakness, the baby was unable to nurse from the breast. He was able to get some milk through a nipple shield if the mother massaged the breast at the same time, but he made such feeble suction that in two weeks the supply of milk amounted to only 2 ounces a day. In the first week the baby lost 18½ ounces, and during the second week, when we supplemented the mother's supply by securing milk from other women who had an overbundance, the baby gained 5 ounces. After leaving the hospital on the fifteenth day, we tried to supplement the breast feedings with certified cow's milk and the baby lost more than he had gained during the second week. I concluded
CALDWELL FC. AN EFFECTIVE BREAST PUMP. Am J Dis Child. 1915;IX(5):381–386. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1915.04100470030004
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