[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 34.236.145.124. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Original Investigation
August 2018

Association of Gestational Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Exposure In Utero With the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in First Nations and Non–First Nations Offspring

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 3George and Fay Yee Centre for Health Care Innovation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 4Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 5Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 6Nanaandawewigamig, First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 7Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(8):724-731. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1201
Key Points

Question  Do children and young adults exposed in utero to gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes have the same risk of developing type 2 diabetes?

Findings  In this cohort study of 467 850 offspring, First Nations status and type 2 diabetes exposure were associated with the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in offspring. Rates of type 2 diabetes were significantly different for gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes exposures.

Meaning  Gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes exposures confer significantly different risk to offspring, suggesting benefits of earlier screening in pregnancy and differential follow-up of the offspring.

Abstract

Importance  Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, disproportionately affecting First Nations (FN) people. Identifying early-life determinants of type 2 diabetes is important to address the intergenerational burden of illness.

Objective  To investigate the association of in utero exposure to gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes, stratified by FN status, with the development of type 2 diabetes in offspring.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This cohort study was derived from the linkage of a pediatric diabetes clinical database and a population-based research data repository in Manitoba, Canada. Mother-infant dyads with a hospital birth or midwifery report in the data repository between April 1, 1984, and April 1, 2008, were identified. The dates of analysis were August through December 2017. Children identified with type 1 diabetes, monogenic diabetes, or secondary diabetes were excluded.

Exposures  Primary exposures included maternal gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes and FN status.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes in offspring by age 30 years.

Results  In this cohort study of 467 850 offspring (mean follow-up, 17.7 years; 51.2% male), FN status and diabetes exposure were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in offspring after adjustment for sex, maternal age, socioeconomic status, birth size, and gestational age. Type 2 diabetes exposure conferred a greater risk to offspring compared with gestational diabetes exposure (3.19 vs 0.80 cases per 1000 person-years, P < .001). Compared with no diabetes exposure, any diabetes exposure accelerated the time to the development of type 2 diabetes in offspring by a factor of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.62-0.90) for gestational diabetes and a factor of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.45-0.57) for type 2 diabetes. First Nations offspring had a higher risk compared with non-FN offspring (0.96 vs 0.14 cases per 1000 person-years, P < .001). First Nations offspring had accelerated type 2 diabetes onset by a factor of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.49-0.55) compared with non-FN offspring. Neither interaction between FN and type 2 diabetes (0.92; 95% CI, 0.80-1.05) nor interaction between FN and gestational diabetes (0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.20) was significant (P = .21 and P = .75, respectively).

Conclusions and Relevance  Important differences exist in offspring risk based on type of diabetes exposure in utero. These findings have implications for future research and clinical practice guidelines, including early pregnancy screening and follow-up of the offspring.

×