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Comment & Response
November 2018

Potential Benefits of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Pulmonary Hypoplasia in Premature Neonates

Author Affiliations
  • 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Oishei Children’s Hospital, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
  • 2Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis, Sacramento
  • 3Department of Medicine, Northern California Health Care System, Mather
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, Sacramento
JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(11):1102-1103. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2892

To the Editor The use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in premature infants has remained one of the most controversial topics in neonatology. The consensus statement from the National Institutes of Health and the Clinical Report from the American Academy of Pediatrics have recommended against the use of iNO in premature neonates.1,2 The National Institutes of Health guidelines do point out that preterm infants with pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) and pulmonary hypertension may potentially benefit from this therapy.3 With loss of equipoise among neonatologists, it may be difficult to conduct a randomized clinical trial. Large databases and registries offer valuable information in the absence of randomized clinical trials.