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Research Letter
January 22, 2019

Association of Rotavirus Vaccination With the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children

Author Affiliations
  • 1Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Royal Children’s Hospital, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • 2Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • 3Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(3):280-282. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4578

Rotavirus (RV) infection has been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children.1 Rotavirus infection triggers pancreatic apoptosis in mice, and RV peptides display molecular mimicry with T-cell epitopes in pancreatic β-cell autoantigens.2 We hypothesized that if natural infection with RV was a causative factor in T1D, then RV vaccination would decrease the incidence of disease over time. Therefore, using publicly available data, we examined the incidence of T1D in Australian children before and after the oral RV vaccine was introduced to the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007.