[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
Views 484
Citations 0
Research Letter
Impact of Policy on Children
May 18, 2020

Association Between Legal Performance-Enhancing Substances and Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Young Adults

Author Affiliations
  • 1Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco
  • 2School of Social Work, Simmons University, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco
  • 4Translational Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 5Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 6Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
JAMA Pediatr. Published online May 18, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0883

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are schedule III drugs that are often used without a prescription to increase muscle mass and tone for appearance or performance enhancement.1,2 Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is associated with negative physiological (eg, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, musculoskeletal, and renal) health outcomes.1 Anabolic-androgenic steroids are also associated with mood and substance-use disorders, aggression, and violence.1 The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is frequently observed among adolescents in the United States and is more prevalent among adolescent boys (3.3% of boys reporting use) compared with adolescent girls (2.4% of girls reporting use) nationwide.3 Although the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is cross-sectionally associated with legal performance-enhancing substances, including creatine monohydrate,1,2 there is a paucity of longitudinal data determining predictors of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Here, we examine the longitudinal association between legal performance-enhancing substances and subsequent use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in a population-based cohort of young adults. We hypothesized that legal performance-enhancing substance use in young adulthood would be associated with subsequent anabolic-androgenic steroid use at 7-year follow-up.

Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words