In the course of clinical studies on acute leukemia in childhood, the rare combination of leukemia and Mongolism was noted in four children during a one-year period. In each patient the somatic stigmata of Mongolism were classical, and the diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed on bone-marrow aspiration.
A single case of combined acute leukemia and Mongolism would be remarkable, considering the rarity of each of the two conditions and the consequent unlikelihood of their occurring together by chance. For example, Mongolism occurs no more frequently than once per 500 live births.1 Leukemia in the 0- to 4-year age range is present in about 5/100,000 respective population.2 Thus the expected occurrence of the leukemia-Mongolism combination by chance alone in children 0-4 years of age would be 1/10,000,000, an experience to be anticipated in Minnesota once in 50 to 100 years at the present Minnesota birth rate. Thus when four
KRIVIT W, GOOD RA. The Simultaneous Occurrence of Leukemia and Mongolism: Report of Four Cases. AMA Am J Dis Child. 1956;91(3):218–222. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1956.02060020220002
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