Hypertension is an unusual finding in children, and it is almost always the manifestation of some serious underlying disease process. The majority of cases are secondary to renal diseases of various nature, such as acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, nephrosis, polycystic kidney, hypoplastic kidney, hydronephrosis, cyst and tumor, renal tuberculosis, aneurysm of renal artery, amyloid kidney, periarteritis nodosa, lower nephron nephrosis, Goldblatt syndrome, and uremia. Even conditions outside but adjacent to the kidney, like perinephritis or a retroperitoneal mass causing pressure on the kidney, will at times cause high blood pressure.
Other important causes of hypertension can be grouped roughly into the following categories for the purpose of diagnostic work-up: I. Cardiovascular: coarctation of aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic insufficiency, mitral stenosis, arteriosclerosis, and polycythemia (Gaisböck). II. Central nervous system: increased intracranial pressure, encephalitis, poliomyelitis, and hypothalamic tumor. III. Endocrine: Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, pheochromocytoma, and therapy with corticotropin
TEVETOGLU F, LEE C. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Simulating Diabetes Insipidus: Report of a Case and Review of the Other Pediatric Cases. AMA Am J Dis Child. 1956;91(4):365–379. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1956.02060020367006
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