Several reports concerning congenital angulations of extremities, obvious at birth, have made their appearance in the pediatric and orthopedic literature of recent years.1,2 The confusion created by such cases—as to cause, care, and outlook—is reflected in the many differences in terminology employed. Some clarification and a descriptive name were forthcoming in 1947 from Caffey.3 He published the records of three children with unusual and similar congenital bowing of their long bones—symmetric in humeri and femora, sometimes unpaired in forearm and leg. He also noted associated skin dimpling, overlying "the salient angles of the curves in several of the deformed bones." Angle presented an excellent review of the literature in 1954,4 commenting on 37 cases which matched the criteria described by Caffey. Angle also expounded—by beautiful inductive reasoning—the possible theories of causation for these unusual deformities. The role of heredity was considered small at most, since no
CONWAY TJ. Prenatal Bowing and Angulation of Long Bones: A Description of Its Occurrence in a Brother and Sister. AMA Am J Dis Child. 1958;95(3):305–308. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1958.02060050307013
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