Many investigators have attempted to treat animals during early pregnancy with x-radiation and to examine the effect as manifested by abnormalities in the offspring. Generally the objective has been to clarify factors influencing the development of congenital abnormalities and to ascertain the teratogenic dosages of radiation and compare effects at different developmental stages of embryonic life. Thus, the malformations which have been studied were mostly those that had developed in near-term fetuses or in newly born animals. Where abnormal morphogenesis had occurred early in pregnancy, development had been permitted to go on until the relatively late stages at which animals were killed. Moreover, except for a few investigators, such as Wilson and Karr1 and Hicks,2 most others have concentrated on the morphological nature of congenital anomalies and have not concerned themselves with a systematic study of mechanisms leading to maldevelopment. In particular, the mechanisms leading to maldevelopment
MURAKAMI U, KAMEYAMA Y. Effects of Low-Dose X-Radiation on the Mouse Embryo. AMA Am J Dis Child. 1958;96(3):272–277. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1958.02060060274003
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