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July 1960

Aerobic Bacterial Flora of the Throat of Children Given Prophylactic Antibiotics: The Influence of Penicillin and Tetracycline on the Occurrence of Micrococcus Pyogenes Var. Aureus; Streptococcus Pyogenes, Diplococcus Pneumoniae, and Hemophilus Influenzae

Author Affiliations

From the Herrick House Rheumatic Fever Convalescent Home, Bartlett, Ill., and the Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine.

Am J Dis Child. 1960;100(1):74-84. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1960.04020040076012

Numerous articles have appeared in the literature regarding the effect of the prolonged administration of various doses and kinds of antibacterial agents on the bacterial flora of the throat. In 1948 Lipman, Cross, and Boots1 demonstrated in throat cultures a change from predominately Gram-positive to predominately Gram-negative flora during the administration of oral penicillin, with a rapid reappearance of a predominately Gram-positive flora after penicillin was discontinued. They found no evidence of the appearance of bacterial resistance to penicillin during its administration. Smith and Bloomfield2 in 1948 presented data showing a similar conversion from Gram-positive to Gram-negative flora in the throat during penicillin administration. Haffner, Neter, and Rubin3 in 1950 again demonstrated a similar conversion during the administration of both penicillin and sulfonamides. They felt that the children whose flora converted from Gram-positive to Gram-negative organisms during antibacterial therapy showed "more severe illness" than those who did

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