Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia which occurs primarily in young infants is a rare entity in which subnormal erythropoiesis produces a gradual but profound anemia. There is no alteration in the white blood cells or platelets; and the usual known hematinics produce no effect. Although different forms of "constitutional" anemias had been described in 1911 by Benjamin,1 and independently by Finkelstein,2 and Stransky,3 in 1925, not until 1936 was the pure form of the disease mentioned in a review by Josephs.4 In 1938, Diamond and Blackfan5 detailed their experiences with 4 children suffering with this disease, bringing it to attention as a distinct clinical entity.Only a few additional case reports were added to the slowly growing literature until 1951, when the first successful treatment of the condition with corticosteroids stimulated renewed interest.6 Since that time, approximately 20 case reports have been published, and,
DIAMOND LK, ALLEN DM, MAGILL FB. Congenital (Erythroid) Hypoplastic Anemia: A 25-Year Study. Am J Dis Child. 1961;102(3):403–415. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1961.02080010405019
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