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October 1962

Water Balance in Infants During Water Deprivation: The Effects of the Protein Content of the Diet on Renal Water Requirements

Author Affiliations

Henry L. Barnett, M.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Eastchester Rd. and Morris Park Ave., New York 61, N.Y.; Instructor, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; recipient of Investigatorship of the Health Research Council of The City of New York (contracts No. 1-162 and No. U-1098) (Dr. Drescher).; Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Dr. Barnett).; Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Dr. Troupkou).; From the Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, and the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center.

Am J Dis Child. 1962;104(4):366-379. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1962.02080030368008

Introduction  Loss of body water occurs normally through the skin, respiratory passages, intestine, and kidney. Abnormal losses of hypotonic fluid may result from diarrhea and vomiting, sweating, and hyperpnea. Under these circumstances, hypertonicity of residual body fluids is partially counteracted by renal conservation of water relative to solute through the elaboration of hypertonic urine. Inadequacy of this mechanism contributes to decreased volume and increased osmolality of body water.In considering water conservation, Gamble 1 defined the minimal renal water requirement as the minimum volume of urine containing the measured solute excreted (millimols per 24 hr.) at the maximally achievable concentration (millimols per milliliter). Data on the rates of solute excretion in premature and full-term infants fed modified and unmodified whole cow's milk formulas as well as commercially available diets of varying protein content available.2-4 Urinary osmolality during water deprivation was measured by Pratt5 in 1-month-old infants and by

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