Premature closure of the foramen ovale is a rare cause of the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Although a number of cases have been reported, early case reports often confused probe patency and premature closure. Several previous reports described edematous infants dying in cardiac failure and ascribed these findings to a normal septum secundum which had covered but not sealed the foramen ovale.1,2 Infants with premature closure of the foramen ovale usually are cyanotic at or shortly after birth, develop signs of congestive failure, and die in the first few days of life. None of Wilson's 20 collected cases lived more than five weeks, and only five of the 20 lived more than one day.3 Little attention has been paid in previous reports to an abnormality we have observed in the muscle of the left side of the heart associated with this lesion. The case to be reported affords
LEVINE AJ, REEVE R. Premature Closure of Foramen Ovale. Am J Dis Child. 1963;106(3):310–314. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1963.02080050312011
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