Circumcision is probably one of the most ancient of surgical operations and has been performed more than any other operation, in the past and today. It is undertaken for ritual reasons as well as for medical indications. In the Jewish people, it is one of the signs of ritual observance and is performed in accordance with the direction in the Bible that every male Jew should be circumcised on the eighth day of his life. In Mohammedans the circumcision is performed between the age of 4 and 13 years. Circumcision was frequently performed among the ancient Egyptians, for it has been noted that the earliest mummies were circumcised. Columbus noted that many of the Indian tribes in America practiced this procedure. Among many primitive tribes in Africa and Australia, circumcision is practiced, again with religious significance.1
In addition to religious reasons, circumcision is often performed for medical indications, especially
SHULMAN J, BEN-HUR N, NEUMAN Z. Surgical Complications of Circumcision. Am J Dis Child. 1964;107(2):149–154. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1964.02080060151007
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