Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia has been accepted as a distinct clinical entity since it was first described by Diamond and Blackfan1 in 1938 and has been the subject of many excellent reviews.2,3 In the original description, the criteria for diagnosis were established as: (a) a normocytic, normochromic anemia developing in infancy; (b) decreased erythropoiesis in the bone marrow; and (c) normal leukopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. Since then, many cases have been reported under a variety of names3-17 and though some authors have not adhered strictly to the original criteria for diagnosis, the cases possibly are all variants of the same condition. The natural history, clinical signs and symptoms, and results of therapy have been very adequately reviewed in 1961 by Diamond et al.2,18
All previously established cases of congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia have been reported only in patients with a Caucasian background. This has led to the
SHAPIRO H, WHITE W, DISEKER M, BENTLEY HP. Congenital (Erythroid) Hypoplastic Anemia: Report of a Case in a Negro Infant. Am J Dis Child. 1964;108(6):674–676. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1964.02090010676016
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