THE APPROPRIATE assignment of sex at birth to infants with hermaphroditic genital anomalies is at times problematic. Prior to the introduction of the refined techniques of urinary steroid determination, chromatin staining, and chromosome counting, little help was available for diagnosis short of exploratory laparotomy which was only rarely performed. Thus, there are those who, having been assigned a sex contrary to their chromosomal sex in the era prior to the advent of refined tools, currently present with difficulties. Secondly, even with the availability of refined diagnostic tools, children are still born whose genitalia do not appear ambiguous at birth, leaving for the emerging signs of puberty to signal the fact that an assignment was made contrary to their chromosomal sex.
The pioneering studies of Money and the Hampsons1,2 on the establishment of gender role in over 100 pseudohermaphroditic children examined, among other things, the effects of rearing children in