IN 1966 Parkman, Meyer, and colleagues1,2 attenuated rubella virus by 77 passages in primary African green monkey kidney (GMK) cell culture and began to evaluate this strain (HPV-77) as a vaccine. Since that time, a number of attenuated rubella strains have been derived from HPV-77. Among these, three have emerged as major vaccine candidates: HPV-77 passaged five times in duck embryo fibroblast cell culture (HPV-77DE5)3,4; HPV-77 passaged 12 times in dog kidney cell culture (HPV-77DK12)5; and HPV-77 passaged three additional times in primary GMK cell culture (HPV-80) (according to a written communication from R. N. Hull, PhD, in June 1969). In addition, an attenuated strain of rubella virus (Cendehill) has been developed by 51 passages in primary rabbit kidney cell culture.6-8 Studies with these vaccines have established that they are immunogenic and attenuated when used in children, and that, although shed in the pharynx,
Karchmer AW, Herrmann KL, Friedman JP, et al. Comparative Studies of Rubella Vaccines. Am J Dis Child. 1969;118(2):197–202. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1969.02100040199007
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