THE PRESENT availability of several effective experimental, live rubella virus vaccines attests to the comparative ease of attenuating this virus by passaging in tissue culture systems.1 Although the nature of the substrate may have influenced the individual rates of attenuation; nevertheless, a variety of cell systems and combinations have been used successfully for vaccine development, including monkey,2 dog,3 and rabbit4 renal cells, duck-embryo cells,5 and human diploid cells.6 With the exception of the last candidate system utilizing the WI-38 human diploid cell strain, the other experimental preparations have in common been isolated and propagated in "primary" cultures. These are generally mixed populations of cells, freshly explanted from animal tissues and cultivated briefly without deliberate subcultivation. Diploid cells on the other hand during a finite period of viability are serially propagated in a technology which characterizes and standardizes them as acceptable in advance of their
Tint H, Rosanoff EI. Production and Testing of Rubella Virus Vaccine: Prepared on WI-38 Cell Cultures. Am J Dis Child. 1969;118(2):367–371. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1969.02100040369036
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