A case of fetal cardiac failure in a stillborn infant was caused by the following anatomic abnormalities: (1) occlusion of the major pulmonary veins, (2) premature closure of the foramen ovale, (3) an incompetent left atrioventricular valve, and (4) a ventricular septal defect. Interpretation of the dynamics leads to the conclusion that the left atrium functioned as an aneurysm of the ventricular portion of the heart.
Becker AE, Becker MJ, Edwards JE. Occlusion of Pulmonary Veins, "Mitral" Insufficiency, and Ventricular Septal Defect: Functional Resemblance to Ventricular Aneurysm. Am J Dis Child. 1970;120(6):557–559. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1970.02100110105015
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